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Accelerating Rate Calorimeters


Battery Safety (Thermal Runaway)
Adiabatic Calorimetry for Advanced Battery Testing

Lithium ion battery technology offers many advantages in portable power application but one major concern is safety – thermal runaway of the device in both normal and abusive situations. In the following article, it will be shown that by means of adiabatic calorimetry, it is not only possible to test single components but also complete lithium ion batteries. From this information batteries can be evaluated for their hazards potential, but more importantly, these tests can be used to design inherently safer cells, providing key design information during the development process – reducing development costs and increasing product safety.


  • Temperature range (°C) -50 to 500°C (with help of Refrigerated Circulator)
  • Temperature increase detection Threshold (°C/min) : 0.005 to 0.02
  • Temperature Precision (repeatability, °C) : +/- 0.05
  • Modes Heat-Wait-Search, Isothermal, Temperature scanning
  • Pressure Range (bar) 0 to 200
  • Pressure Resolution (bar) 0.001
  • Pressure Accuracy (bar) +/- 2

Calorimeter Heater’s power supply 6000- 8000W, With 12 heater and Four Heating Zones (adiabatic zones with N-Type Thermocouples) provide uniform temperature .


  • The SCI- ARC-231 is a versatile calorimeter with:
  • FAST TRACK RATE for a good measurement accuracy even at lower phi factors
  • LOW ONSET TEMPERATURE detection threshold
  • INSTRUMENT with a compact design for lab space saving and easier maintenance
  • CONVENIENT TO USE with good usage to maintenance time ratio
  • ACCESSIBLY PRICED instrument and replacement parts

Calorimeter Sizes 09/40/50 cm by 09/44/54 cm with Nickel Plated and Copper wall with 20-25mm thickness.
Minimum depth for Calorimeter is 9-10 cm.
Pressure precision 0.15% of full scale (Pressure vessel with 5, 10, 15 bar pressure and 4.5, 7, 10 and 20 litre capacity for all battery range)
Temperature measurement by DIRECT sample contact
Mathematical model for heat loss compensation without need for manual calibration.
Automatic system for gas collection and programed by ARC Software
Adiabatic control by on-line automatic compensation and correction
Detection of exotherm sensitivity, typically 0.005 to 0.02° C/min
Tracking rate: ~ 10°C/minute and higher (according to conditions in calorimeter).
Chamber cooling with liquid nitrogen/cool air
Temperature Sensors Extra sensors (type-K thermocouples) can be supplied for measuring battery temperatures at different locations during self-heating. Working range -50°C to +1000°C, fully logged in software. System voltage : 230V, 30amp

Power supply single phase

AKTS Thermal Safety Software for precise modelling of runaway situations, provides the Self-Accelerated Decomposition Temperature (SADT), Time to Maximum Rate (TMR) and the full package of thermal hazards data can all be precisely predicted.

SCI- ARC 231- Calorimeter with following options

  • Programmable Power Supply for Battery Charging
  • Programmable D.C Load for Battery Discharging Unit
  • Extra Temperature Sensors (8, 12 & 24 for Battery Thermal Management)
  • Specific Heat Determination with data analysis software and automatic calculation
  • Remote Video ( viewing via probe )
  • Low Temperature operation (with help of Refrigerated Circulator)
  • Battery component testing and Short Circuit option
  • Transient Current Recording
  • Nail Penetration Apparatus

  • 5 hardened Stainless steel nails, Force ~ 400N, ~40kg-force =85lb-force
  • Nail length : 50-75 mm
  • Diameter of nail: 2-10mm
  • Nail Speed range from 1mm/sec to 12 cm/sec with Automatic/Computer
  • Controlled and covered distance range 15 to 45mm .

Protective Assembly Vessel consisting of

Stainless Steel cover plate, 20mm thick, with hydraulically operated pulley and chain to allow lifting and lowering, Stainless steel cylindrical walls, with ports at sides, Stainless cylindrical pressure vessel, Complete assembly is mounted to floor standing frame,Lid seals against body of vessel (leak tight design). Hydraulically tested to 5bar. Safety relieve though computer controlled vent valve (under user setting) and automatically through mechanical rupture disc, routed to safe vent location. Calorimeter inside the Explosion proof chamber with gas collection facility in gas chamber for further study.


1. ARC